Marriage is a fundamental social unit that reflects the overall structure and organization of every culture. When a man and a woman marry, they must be able to adapt to half a century of social development, mutual growth, and changes (Sanaei Zakir and Bagheranjad, 2018). If the couple's feelings towards their life together are positive, they will experience well-being, security, and good health, enabling their abilities to thrive (Bradbury, Finchen, and Beach, 2000). While this relationship can be the most intimate and comforting bond, it also has the potential to cause severe damage to its members. An unsuccessful marriage can hinder personal growth and lead to aimlessness. The failures in this regard may take a lot of time to heal (Nazari, 2016).
Researchers have demonstrated that the negative effects of conflict in a couple's interactions are related to violence and discord (Bukvala, Sobin, and Zdaniuk, 2005). These destructive relationships or negative interactions between couples result in diminished relationship satisfaction and an increased likelihood of divorce (Dolatabadi, 2016). Due to significant economic and cultural changes in society, traditional family roles and duties have undergone transformations. This has had a profound impact on the roles and responsibilities of husbands and wives within families. To put it plainly, traditional marriages, which were based on fixed roles (breadwinner-housewife), have evolved over several generations. Nowadays, these relationships are defined more by agreement and dialogue between its members.
In fact, self-knowledge and identity in modern society have become subjects of reevaluation. Being a woman or a man no longer has a clear and specific meaning in terms of identity and the responsibilities it entails (Giddens, translated by Sabouri, Kashani, 2016). The normative order that once governed marriages throughout life has lost its dominance. Women, as independent individuals, now have the right to make decisions and voice their opinions on family matters. Therefore, dialogue and negotiation are essential in deciding the nature of relationships between family members and how long both parties are willing to continue this type of relationship. Additionally, easy access to contraception has changed the purpose of sexual intercourse from generational reproduction to seeking pleasure and satisfaction within the relationship. Giddens argues that the world needs a new generation, liberated from traditional constraints, as individuals make choices about their behavior in this regard (Giddens, translated by Sabouri, Kashani, 2016). This shift has changed the expectations that couples have of each other, creating fundamental uncertainties in meeting each other's desires and expectations, especially for women (Dolatabadi, 2016).
As social beings, individuals are deeply influenced by society, which shapes their psychological structures. Psychologists are now interested in understanding how culture affects people and shapes their individual identities. Cultural psychology suggests that the content of a culture has a long-lasting impact on behavior, emotions, and thoughts (Khamsa, 2009). Each person's psychological processes and structures are organized through their active effort to align their behaviors with the meaning and behaviors prescribed by their culture (Gudarzi, 2015). Cross-cultural psychology also examines cultures in a comparative manner, studying the similarities and differences in psychological functions among different groups of people (Berry et al., 2003).
Considering that divorce has become one of the main issues among Iranian families, with increasing frequency according to the number of cases entering the judiciary, this call for papers aims to identify marital problems and formulate training programs based on these conflicts. Dealing with social, cultural, and ethnic issues when addressing family problems may be challenging due to limited research in this area. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify couples' problems and design a culturally sensitive protocol that provides assistance, while respecting cultural norms. The primary focus of this study is to identify indicators of couples' problems in Iran and develop a validated intervention protocol.
Identifying indicators of couples' problems in Iran
Designing a validation and intervention protocol.
Investigating the effect of intervention protocol training on reducing the problems of Iranian couples
Establishing the role of qualitative data in the design and validation of the intervention protocol
Teaching appropriate intervention protocols to reduce couple problems in Iran
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