Hill Publishing Group | contact@hillpublisher.com

Hill Publishing Group

Location:Home / Journals / International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture /


Effect of NPS-B Blended and Nitrogen Fertilizers Application on Bread Wheat Yield and Economic Profitability on Nitisol of Southern, Ethiopia

Date: May 12,2022 |Hits: 1404 Download PDF How to cite this paper

Melkamu Hordofa Sigaye*, Ribka Mekuria, Kidist Kebede

Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research Institute, Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 198, Shashemane, Ethiopia.

*Corresponding author: Melkamu Hordofa Sigaye


The drive for higher agricultural production without balanced use of fertilizers created problems of soil fertility exhaustion. Inorganic fertilizers have been an important tool to overcome soil fertility problems and are also responsible for a large part of the food production increases. The study was conducted at Bule southern, Ethiopia, and aimed to determine the optimum level of NPS-B blended fertilizers by supplementing N from urea rates for maximum yield of bread wheat production and to determine the economically optimum level of NPS-B and by supplementing N from urea fertilizer. The treatments were: (100 kg ha-1 NPSB + 150 kg ha-1 Urea), (150 kg ha-1 NPSB + 150 kg ha-1 Urea), (200 kg ha-1 NPS + 150 kg ha-1 Urea), (250 kg ha-1 NPSB + 150 kg ha-1 Urea), (100 kg ha-1 NPSB + 250 kg ha-1 Urea), (150 kg ha-1 NPS + 250 kg ha-1 Urea), (200 kg ha-1 NPSB + 250 kg ha-1 Urea), (250 kg ha-1 NPBS + 250 kg ha-1 Urea), (100 kg ha-1 NPSB + 350 kg ha-1 Urea), (150 kg ha-1 NPSB + 350 kg ha-1 Urea), (200 kg ha-1 NPSB + 350 kg ha-1 Urea), (250 kg ha-1 NPSB + 350 kg ha-1 Urea), control and R-NP (69N and 20P). The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The maximum on biomass yield (13994.0 kg ha-1), grain yield (6990.6 kg ha-1), and straw yield (76201 kg ha-1) were obtained from the application of 200 kg ha-1 of NPSB and 250 kg ha-1 of Urea and followed by recommended NP fertilizers and of 250 kg ha-1 of NPSB and 250 kg, ha-1 of Urea were superior to all of the other treatments. However, the lowest above-ground biomass, grain, and straw yields were obtained from control or unfertilized plot. The economic analysis revealed that the highest net benefit of 178860.4 ETB ha-1 with a marginal rate of return (MRR%) of 309.0% was obtained in response to the application of 200 kg ha-1 of blended NPS-B with 250 kg ha-1 of Urea. However, the lowest net benefit was obtained from an unfertilized or control plot. Therefore, applications of 200 kg ha-1 NPSB of blended plus 250 kg ha-1 of urea is economically advisable for farmers in the Bule districts southern, Ethiopia and areas with similar agro-ecological and soil conditions for better bread wheat production.


[1] Desta, G., Mihratu, A., Tolessa, D., Hailu, M., Tadiyos, B. (2017). Enhancing Sustainable Wheat Productivity and Production through Development of Wheat Varieties Best Adapted to Irrigated Lowland Areas of Ethiopia. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 6: 305-310.

[2] FAO-WRB (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation) World Reference Base for Soil Resources). (1998). World reference base for soil resources. World soil report. No. 84. Rome. 88p.

[3] CSA (Central Statistical Agency). (2018). Agricultural Sample Survey for the crop season. Vol. 5. report on Area and production Statistical Bulletin 578. FDRE/CSA, A.A, Ethiopia.

[4] Samuel, G., Mekbib, G., and Matthias, K. (2017). The Wheat Sector in Ethiopia: Current Status and Key Challenges for Future Value Chain Development. In: C. Borgemeister; J. von Braun; M. Denich; T. Stellmacher; E. Youkhana. s.l.:ZEF Working Paper Series.

[5] Elias, E., Okoth, P. F., Smaling, E. M. A. (2019). Explaining bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) yield differences by soil properties and fertilizer rates in the highlands of Ethiopia. Geoderma, 339: 126-133.

[6] Elias, E. (2017). Characteristics of Nitisol profiles as affected by land use type and slope class in some Ethiopian highlands. Environmental Systems Research, 6: 20.

[7] Hailu, H., Mamo, T., Keskinen, R., Karltun, E., Gebrekidan, H., Bekele, T. (2015). Soil fertility status and wheat nutrient content in Vertisol cropping systems of central highlands of Ethiopia. Agriculture and Food Security, 4: 19.

[8] Fageria, N. K. and V. C. Baligar. (2001). Improving nutrient use efficiency of annual crops in Brazilian acid soils for sustainable crop production. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 32: 1303-1319.

[9] EthioSIS (Ethiopian Soil Information System). (2014). Soil analysis report agriculture transformation agency [Unpublished]. Ministry of Agriculture and Agriculture Transformation Agency.

[10] Van Reeuwijk. (2002). Procedures for Soil Analysis (6th Ed.). FAO, International Soil Reference and Information Center.6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands.

[11] Walkley, A, Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of different method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37: 29-37.

[12] Olsen, S. R. and L. E. Sommers. (1982). Phosphorus. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. 2nd ed., pp. 403-429. Amer. Soc. Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin.

[13] Sahlemedhin, S. (1999). Draft guideline for regional soil testing laboratories. NFIA, Addis Ababa Ethiopia.

[14] McLean, K. O. (1965). Methods of Soils Analysis. Part II. Agronomy. No. 9. American Society Agronomy. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

[15] CIMMYT. (1988). From agronomic data to farmer’s recommendations: economics training manual. Completely revised edition, CIMMYT, Mexico. D.F. 79 pp.

[16] SAS (Statistical Analysis System Institute). (2014). SAS Version 9.4 © 2002-2012. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.

[17] Tekalign Tadese. (1991). Soil, plant, water, fertilizer, animal manure and compost analysis. Working Document No. 13. International Livestock Research Center for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

[18] Sumner, M. E. (2000). Handbook of Soil Science, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

[19] Cottenie, A. (1980). Soil and plant testing as a basis of fertilizer recommendations. FAO Soil Bulletin 38/2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

[20] Hazelton, P. and B. Murphy. (2007). Interpreting soil test results: What do all the numbers mean 2nd Edition. CSIRO Publishing. 152p.

[21] Saeed, B., Gul, H., Zaman, K. A., and Parveen, L. (2012). Growth factors and straw yield of wheat cultivars in relation with nitrogen and sulfur fertilization. Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 7 (1), 1103-1109.

[22] Harfe, M. (2017). Response of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties to N and P fertilizer rates in Ofla district, Southern Tigray, Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural, 12(19), 1646–1660. https://doi.org/10. 5897/AJAR2015.10545.

[23] Shahraki, H., Mobasser, H. R., and Ganjali, H. R. (2017). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and mycorrhizal fungi on yield and yield component of wheat. International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences, 6, 21-24.

[24] Abayu, B. (2012). Agronomic and economic effects of blended fertilizers under planting method on yield and yield components of tef [M.Sc. Thesis]. Mekelle University.

[25] Botella, M. A., Cerda, A. C., and Lips, S. H. (1993). Dry matter production, yield and allocation of carbon-14 assimilate by wheat as affected by nitrogen source and salinity. Agronomy Journal, 35(5), 1044-1049. https:// doi.org/10.2134/agronj1993.

[26] Barker, A. V. and Pilbeam, D. J. (2007). Handbook of plant nutrition. Taylor and Francis.

[27] Samuel, T., Nelson, W. L., Beaton, J. D., and Havlin, J. L. (1993). Soil fertility and fertilizers (5th ed). MacMilln Company.

[28] Smith, D. L. and Hamel, C. (1999). Crop yield: Physiological processes. Spring Verlag.

[29] Abdin, M. Z. (2000). Effect of sulfur application on lipid, RNA and fatty acid content in developing seeds of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.). Plant Science, 150(1), 71-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(99) 00167-3.

[30] Tilahun Chibsa, B., Gebrekidan, H., Kibebew Kibret, T., and Tolessa Debele, D. (2017). Effect of rate and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Var L. Durum) grown on Vertisols of Bale highlands, southeastern Ethiopia. American Journal of Research Communication, 5(1), 39-56.

[31] Ali, R., Khan, M. J., and Khattak, R. A. (2008). Response of rice to different sources of Sulfur (S) at various levels and its residual effect on wheat in rice wheat cropping system. Soil Environment, 27(1), 131-137.

[32] Prasad, S. (2017). Effect of sowing time and nutrient management on growth and yield of heat tolerant varieties of wheat [PhD. Thesis]. College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya.

[33] Tahir, M., Tanveer, A., Shah, T., HFiaz, N., and Wasaya, A. (2009). Yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to boron application at different growth stages. Pakistan Journal Life Social Science, 7(1), 39-42.

[34] Sisay, A. (2016). Response of tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] to different blended fertilizer rates on Vertisols in Jama District, Northeastern Ethiopia [MSc. Thesis]. Haramaya, University Haramaya.

[35] Hiwot, L. (2012). Evaluating the effect of low seeding rate, planting method and blended fertilizer application on Eragrostis tef (Kuncho variety) yield, yield component and nutrient uptake by grain grown on Regosols and Vertisols [MSc Thesis]. Mekelle University.

[36] Kebkab, E., Dechassa, N., and Negassa, W. (2017). Effect of compost and phosphorus application on growth, yield and P-Uptake of durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) on vertisol, Central Highland of Ethiopia. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 5(4), 1469-1473.

[37] Haileselassie, B., Habte, D., Haileselassie, M., and Gebremeskel, G. (2014). Effects of mineral nitrogen and phosphorus ferti-lizers on yield and nutrient utilization of bread wheat (Tritcum aestivum L.) on the sandy soils of Hawzen District, Northern Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 3(3), 189-198. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.204030.18.

[38] Landon, J. R. (1991). Booker tropical soil manual Hand Book for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropical and sub tropics. Long man scientific and technical, ESSXEX, New York. 474p.

[39] Abebe, B. and Manchore, M. (2016). Effect of the rate of N fertilizer application on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at chencha, southern Ethiopia. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Science, 6(11), 2224-3186. doi:10.21276/ljpaes.

[40] Asgelil, D., Taye, B., and Yesuf, A. (2007). The status of Micro-nutrients in Nitisols, Vertisols, Cambisols, and FLuvisolss in major Maize, Wheat, Teff and Citrus growing areas of Ethiopia. In Proceedings of Agricultural Research Fund. Pp. 77-96.

[41] Leta, G., Belay, G., and Worku, W. (2013). Nitrogen fertilization effects on grain quality of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.Var.Durum) varieties in Central Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1(1), 1-7.

[42] Wakjira, T. (2018). Teff Yield Response to NPS Fertilizer and Methods of Sowing in East Shewa, Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 13(2): 162-173.

How to cite this paper

Effect of NPS-B Blended and Nitrogen Fertilizers Application on Bread Wheat Yield and Economic Profitability on Nitisol of Southern, Ethiopia

How to cite this paper: Melkamu Hordofa Sigaye, Ribka Mekuria, Kidist Kebede. (2022) Effect of NPS-B Blended and Nitrogen Fertilizers Application on Bread Wheat Yield and Economic Profitability on Nitisol of Southern, Ethiopia. International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture6(2), 160-168.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2022.06.005

Volumes & Issues

Free HPG Newsletters

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from Hill Publishing Group.

Contact us

Hill Publishing Group

8825 53rd Ave

Elmhurst, NY 11373, USA

E-mail: contact@hillpublisher.com

Copyright © 2019 Hill Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved.