Advance in Biological Research

Downloads: 8344 Total View: 120555
Frequency: Instant publication ISSN Online: 2635-0319 CODEN: ABRDF6
Email: abr@hillpublish.com

Volumes & Issues

Current Issue

Article http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/abr.2020.04.001

Species Composition and Biomass Production in Two Communal Coastal Rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Matshawule, S.

Department of Rural Development & Agrarian Reform, Chris Hani district, P.O. Box 112, Queenstown, 5320, Eastern Cape, Republic of South Africa.

*Corresponding author: Matshawule, S.

Published: April 14,2020

Abstract

This study investigated species composition and biomass production of herbaceous plants in two communal rangelands surrounding homesteads areas. In each study area, the rangelands were divided based on the distance from homesteads into near (up to 1 km), middle (> 1–2 km) and far (> 2–3 km) sites. On each site a HVU of 50 m x 20 m was used and six 0.25 m2 quadrants were laid randomly on each HVU. Herbaceous species found within a quadrant were identified, counted and their height and tuft were measured. Herbaceous species were also harvested, bulked and placed into well labelled brown paper bags and oven-dried for 48 hours at 60 oC to determine biomass production. Herbaceous species were also classified according to their palatability ecological status and life form. Data were collected for two seasons over 2014/15 (winter and summer). A total of 20 herbaceous species were identified in the study areas. Of these 17 were grass species. The most common or dominant grass species were T. triandra, C. dactylon, E. capensis, E. plana and S. africanus. At Dyamdyam T. triandra showed the greatest frequency of occurrence at far site than middle and near homesteads sites. The frequency occurrence of S. africanus at Machibi was relatively similar in all the study sites. Density of herbaceous species was significantly lowest on near and bottom sites at Dyamdyam and Machibi, respectively. In both winter and summer, grazing site far and top from homestead had greatest (P <0.05) biomass production at Dyamdyam and Machibi respectively. The biomass production was significantly highest in the summer than the winter across the study sites in both study areas. It can be concluded that composition of herbaceous species and biomass production are significantly dependent on distance and topography from homesteads and seasons. Therefore, any rangeland management practices in communal grazing lands should consider these factors in to consideration during the planning of development progress.

References

ABULE, E, SNYMAN, H. A. & SMIT, G. N. 2007. Rangeland evaluation in the middle Awash valley of Ethiopia: I. Herbaceous vegetation cover. Journal of Arid Environment doi: 10.106/j. jarideny.

AHMAD, K., HUSSAIN, M., ASHRAF, M., LUQMAN, M., ASHRAF, M. Y. & KHAN. Z. I. 2007. Indigenous vegetation of Soone Valley: At risk of extinction. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39 (3): 679–690.

ANDERSON, P. M. L. & HOFFMAN, M. T. 2006. The impacts of sustained heavily grazing on plant diversity and composition in lowland and upland habitats across the Kamiesberg mountain range in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. Journal of Arid Environments. Doi: 10.106/j.jarideny. 2006–05–17.

ANGASA, A. & OBA, G. 2010. Effects of grazing pressure, age of enclosures and seasonality on bush cover dynamics and vegetation composition in southern Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments 74: 111 – 120.

BAILEY, D. W., GROSS, J. E., LACA, E. A., RITTENHOUSE, L. R., COUGHENOUR, M. B., SWIFT, M. D. & SIMS, P. L. 1996. Mechanisms that result in large herbivore grazing distribution pattern. Journal of Range Management 49: 386–400.

BELSKY, A. J. & BLUEMENTHAL, D. M. 1997. Effects of livestock grazing on Stand Dynamics and Soil in Upland Forest of the Interior West.

BOND-LAMBERTY, B., WANG, C. & GOWER, S. T.  2002. Net primary production and net ecosystem production of a boreal black spruce wildfire chrosquence. Global Change Biology 10: 473–487.

CORONATO, F. R. & BERTILLER, M. B. 1996. Precipitation and Landscape related effects on soil moisture in semi-arid rangelands of Patagonia. Journal of Arid Environments 34: 1–9.

DANCKWERTS, J. E. 2001. The effects of management practices on livestock performance and veld condition assessment in the semi-arid savannas of Eastern Cape region. Pasture Research Dohne. Stutterheim, South Africa [Web:] http://www.arc.agric.za/instute/rfi/main/projects/project 10.htm [Accessed on 2002/02/02].

DYKSTERHUIS, E. J. 1994. Condition and management of rangeland based on quantitative ecology. Journal of Range Management 2: 104–115.

EVERSON, T. M. & HATCH, G. P. 1999. Managing veld (rangeland) in communal areas of southern Africa. In: Tainton N M (ed) Veld Management in South Africa. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, pp. 381–388.

GEMEDO-DALLE, MAASS, B. L. & ISSEETEIN, J. 2006. Rangeland condition trend in the semi-arid Boran lowlands, southern Oromia, Ethiopia. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 23 (1): 49–58.

HAYES, G. E. & HOLL, D. K. 2003. Cattle grazing impacts on annual forbs and vegetation composition of mesic grass veld in California. Conservation Biology 17 (6): 1694–1702.

HEIN, L. 2006. The impact of grazing and rainfall variability on the dynamics of a Sahelian rangeland. Journal of Arid Environments 64: 488–504.

LESOLI, M. S. 2008. Vegetation and soil status, and human perception on the condition of communal rangeland of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. MSc. Thesis, University of Fort Hare, South Africa.

MAKI, A., KENJI, T., KIYOKAZU, K. & TERUO, H. 2007. Morphological and physic-chemical characteristics of soil in a steppe region of the Kherlen River basin, Mongolia. Journal of Hydrology 333: 100–108.

MCDONALD, L. C., MCFEETERS, R. F., DAESCHEL, M. A. & FLEMING, H. P. 1897. A differential medium for the enumeration of homofermentative and heterofermantative lactic acid bacteria. Applied and Environment Microbiology 53: 1382–1384.

MORRIS, C. & KOTZE, D. 2006. Introduction to Veld care (1). Agricultural research council, University of Kwazulu Natal.

NOELLEMEYER E., QUIROGA, A.R. & ESTELRICH, D. 2006. Soil quality in three range soils of the semi-arid Pampa of Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments 65: 142–155.

O’ CONNOR, T. G. & PICKETT, G. A. 1999. The effects of grazing history on the herbaceous composition: population structure and seed banks of some African savanna grasslands. Journal of Applied Ecology 29 (1):247–260.

O’ FARRELL, P. L., DONALDSON, J. S. & HAFFMAN, M. T. 2007. The influence of ecosystem goods and services on livestock management practices on the Bokkeveld plateau, South Africa. Agriculture, ecosystem and environment doi: 10.1016/j. agee. 2007–.01–025.

OZTAS, T., KOC, A. & COMAKLI, B. 2003. Changes in vegetation and soil properties along a slope on overgrazing and eroded rangelands. Journal of Arid Environments 55: 93–100.

QUATTROCCHI, U. 2006. CRC World dictionary of grasses: common name, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA.

SAVADOGO, P., SAWADOGO, L. & TIVEAU, D. 2007. Effects of grazing intensity and prescribed fire on soil physical and hydrological properties and pasture yield in the savanna woodlands of Burkina Faso. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 11: 80 – 92.

SENFT, R. L., RITTENHOUSE, L. R. & WOODMANSEE, R. G. 1985. Factors influencing patterns of cattle grazing behaviour on short grass steppe. Journal of Range management 38: 82–87.

SHACKLETON, C. M. 1993. Fuelwood harvesting and sustainable utilization in a communal grazing land and protected area of eastern Transvaal Lowveld. Biological Conservation 63: 247– 257.

SISAY, A. & BAARS, R. M. T. 2002. Grass composition and rangeland condition of the major grazing areas in the mid Rift Valley, Ethiopia. African of range and forage Science 19: 161–166.

SMET, M. & WARD, D. 2005. A comparison of the effects of different rangeland management system on plant species composition, diversity and vegetation structure in a Semi-Arid Savanna. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 22(1): 59–71.

SOLOMON, T. B., SNYMAN, H. A. & SMIT, G. N. 2007. Cattle-rangeland management practices and perceptions of pastoralists towards rangelands degradation in the Boran zone of Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental Management 82: 481–494.

TROLLOPE, W. S. W., TROLLOPE, L. A. & BOSCH, O. J. H. 1990. Veld and pasture management terminology in Southern Africa. Journal of Grassland Society of Southern Africa 7: -52–61.

VAN OUDTSHOORN, F. V. 1992. Guide to Grasses of South Africa. Pretoria: Briza Publications. First edition

VAN OUDTSHOORN, F. V. 2012. Guide to Grasses of southern Africa. Briza Publications. Third revised edition.

VORSTER, M. 1982. The development of the ecological index method for assessing veld condition in the Karoo. Proceeding of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa 17: 84–89.

XU, J., WANG, Z. & CHENG, J.J. 2011. Bermuda grass as feedstock for biofuel production: A review. Bio-resource Technology 102: 7613–7620.

How to cite this paper

Species Composition and Biomass Production in Two Communal Coastal Rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

How to cite this paper: Matshawule, S. (2020) Species Composition and Biomass Production in Two Communal Coastal Rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Advance in Biological Research1(1), 1-10.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/abr.2020.04.001