Seed sector has been growing slowly with insufficient infrastructures, extension and value chain support services in Nepal. An exploratory review of the literature followed by a number of consultative interactions with value chain actors (N=90) was made in 2019, aiming to find the strengths and weaknesses of agriculture extension and support services on seed sector development, specific to Chitwan, Dolakha and Rupandehi districts. Findings revealed that a set of seed legislations were enforced followed by pluralistic agriculture extension system, coupled with a number of seed production initiatives in these districts. A number of government, non-government, private and community organizations are involved in seed sector development, despite, the seed replacement rate was very low and the value chain actors are demanding a number of support services to overcome the associated problems. Major issues to be resolved were, the availability of quality inputs (77%), strong research and extension back up (72%), credit/subsidy support (66%), reducing the price gap on seed retailing (62%), commercialization and lowering cost of production (60%), infrastructure development (55.6%), harnessing market opportunities (53%), quality assurance (40%) and coping against natural disasters (37% respondent). Organizing and supporting farmers/entrepreneurs for economic scale/commercial and contract seed production, linking to seed markets, infrastructure development, input/s management, strong seed regulation, research back up and farmer’s welfare program are needed. Therefore, it is recommended to put in place a priority seed program with clearly defined roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders to ensuring seed self-sufficiency and import substitution in Nepal.
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