Hill Publishing Group | contact@hillpublisher.com

Hill Publishing Group

Location:Home / Journals / International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture /


Incidence of Mycotoxin-Producing Fungi in Overripe Fruits Sold in Lugbe Market and Its Potential Health Implications

Date: July 22,2021 |Hits: 333 Download PDF How to cite this paper

G. B. Olukotun*, R. R. Ideh, N. O. Oyedokun, T. Abdulkareem, O. J. Asake, O. A. Onuh

Product Development Unit, BED, National Biotechnology Development Agency, (FMST), Umaru MusaYar’adua Expressway, Abuja, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: G. B. Olukotun


Many strains of fungi are known to produce mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, patulin and alternaria toxins which are secondary metabolites released into foods and food products. The incidence of these metabolites in foods especially fruits is of great human health concern due to its toxigenic potentials even at low dose levels. Of greater concerns is the consumers’ attitude toward the consumption of these fruits, particularly in the areas we studied. The major aim of this research was therefore, to determine the prevalence of fungi associated with ripe, over-ripe and rotten fruits and the consumers’ responses using structured questionnaire as well as empirical laboratory analysis. The fungal analysis of the vended ripe and overripe fruits was studied using standard analytical methods. Results show that fungi isolated from the fruits were Aspergillus niger, which is a potent producer of mycotoxin (37%), Fusarium sp. (8%), Mucor mucedo (18%), Aspergillus fumigatus (13%), Mucor sp. (11%), Aspergillus flavus (5%), Penicillium digitatum (4%), Rhizopus stolonifer (3%) and Phytophthora sp. (2%) in that order. This indicates that these fungi species are of economic and public health significance as they are capable of producing toxic compounds in fruits. The toxic substances can result to food poisoning or intoxication if consumed. High poverty level and lack of awareness that over-ripe fruits provide good ground for the growth and production of toxin-laden fungi are the leading factors responsible for many people eating overripe fruits according to our questionnaire. The questionnaire analyses also show that many people are unaware of the dangers associated with the consumption of over-ripe fruits. The results of this work could be used as added material for educating the masses about the dangers of consuming toxigenic materials especially unwholesome fruits.


[1] Smith, J. S., Williams, W. P., and Windham, G. L. (2019).  Aflatoxin in maize: a review of the early literature from “moldy-corn toxicosis” to the genetics of aflatoxin accumulation resistance;  Mycotoxin Research, volume 35, pp. 111-128. 

[2] Koehler, P., Tacke, D., and Cornely, O. A. (2016).  Bone and joint infections by Mucorales, Scedosporium, Fusarium and even rarer fungi.  Crit Rev Microbiol, 42: 158-71. 

[3] Logrieco, A., Moretti, A., and Solfrizzo, M. (2009).  Alternaria toxins and plant diseases: an overview of origin, occurrence and risks.  World Mycotoxin J., 2: 129-140. 

[4] Gultie, A., Sahile, S., and Subramanian, C. (2013).  Assessment of fruit management in Gondar town markets of North Western Ethiopia.  GJBAHS, 2013, 2(4): 4-8. 

[5] Oyeleke, A., Manga, S. B. (2008).  Essential of Laboratory Practice. 3rd ed. Minna, Niger state, Nigeria: Tobest Publisher.  Pp. 12-29. 

[6] Thiyam, B. and Sharma, G. D. (2013).  Isolation and identification of fungi associated with local fruits of Barak Valley, Assam.  Curr.  World Environ, 2013, 8(2): 319-322. 

[7] Domsch, K. H., W. Gams, and T. H. Anderson.  (1993).  Compendium of Soil Fungi.  Academic Press, London.  P. 860. 

[8] Mailafia, S., Okoh, G. R., Olabode, H. O. K., Osanupin, R. (2017).  Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria.  Veterinary World, 10(4): 393-397. 

[9] Baiyewu, R. A., N. A. Amusa, O. A. Ayoola, and O. O. Babalola.  (2007).  Survey of the post-harvest diseases and aflatoxin contamination of marketed pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya L.) in South Western Nigeria.  Afr.  J. Biotechnol. , 6: 178-181. 

[10] Akinmusire, O. O. (2011).  Fungal Species associated with the spoilage of some edible fruits in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria.  Advances in Environmental Biology, 5(1): 157-161. 

[11] Onuorah Samuel, Obika Ifeanyi, and Okafor Ugochukwu.  (2015).  Filamentous Fungi Associated with the Spoilage of Post-Harvest Sweet Orange Fruits (Citrus Sinensis) Sold in Awka Major Markets, Nigeria.  Bioengineering and Bioscience, 3(3), 44-49 

[12] Efiuvwere.  (2000).  Microbial spoilage agents of tropical and assorted fruits and vegetables.  1st ed. Port Harcourt: Paragraphics Publishers. 

[13] Onuorah, S., Udemezue, O., Uche, J., and Okoli, I. C. (2013).  Fungi Associated with the Spoilage of Pineapple Fruits in Eke Awka Market Anambra State.  The Bioscientist Journal, 1(1), 22-27. 

[14] Oluwakemi, O. I., Ademola, E. A., and Anthony, T. I. (2020).  A review on the consumption of vended fruits: microbial assessment, risk, and its control.  Food Quality and Safety, Volume 4, Issue 2, May 2020, pp. 77-81. 

[15] Lamidi, Y. and Olorunmowaju.  (2020).  Isolation and Identification of Fungi Associated With Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum M.).  Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 3(5): 2617-3131. 

[16] Gustavo, B. C. V., Juan, F. M. J. Stella, M. S. T. Maria, L. M. Aurelio, and W. C. Jorge.  (2003).  “Handling and preservation of fruits and vegetables by combined methods for rural areas,” Technical Manual FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 149, FAO, Rome, Italy, 2003. 

[17] FAO.  (2008).  Basic Harvest and Post-Harvest Handling Considerations for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables handling and Preserva-tion, FAO, Rome, Italy, 2008. 

[18] Richardson, M. D., Richardson R. Aspergillus, and Aspergillosis.  (2015).  In: Paterson R. R. M., Lima N. (eds.), Molecular Biology of Food and Water Borne Mycotoxigenic and Mycotic Fungi.  CRC Press;  Boca Raton, FL, USA: 2015.  Pp. 151-164. 

[19] Brenier-Pinchart, M. P., Faure, O., Garban, F., Fricker-Hidalgo, H., Mallaret, M. R., Trens, A., Lebeau, B., Pelloux, H., Grillot R. (2006).  Ten-year surveillance of fungal contamination of food within a protected haematological unit.  Mycoses. 2006, 49: 421-425. 

[20] Petzinger, E. and Weidenbach, A. (2002).  Mycotoxins in the food chain: The role of ochratoxins.  Livest.  Prod. Sci. , 2002, 76: 245-250. 

[21] Paterson, R. R. M. and Lima, N. (2015).  Molecular Biology of Food and Water Borne Mycotoxigenic and Mycotic Fungi.  CRC Press;  Boca Raton, FL, USA: 2015. 

[22] Al-Hindi, R. R, Al-Najada, A. R., and Mohamed, S. A. (2011).  Isolation and identification of some fruit spoilage fungi: Screening of plant cell wall degrading enzymes.  Afr.  J. Microbiol.  Res., 2011, 5(4): 443-448.

How to cite this paper

Incidence of Mycotoxin-Producing Fungi in Overripe Fruits Sold in Lugbe Market and Its Potential Health Implications

How to cite this paper: G. B. Olukotun, R. R. Ideh, N. O. Oyedokun, T. Abdulkareem, O. J. Asake, O. A. Onuh. (2021) Incidence of Mycotoxin-Producing Fungi in Overripe Fruits Sold in Lugbe Market and Its Potential Health Implications. International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture5(3), 381-388.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2021.09.007

Volumes & Issues

Free HPG Newsletters

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from Hill Publishing Group.

Contact us

Hill Publishing Group

8825 53rd Ave

Elmhurst, NY 11373, USA

E-mail: contact@hillpublisher.com

Copyright © 2019 Hill Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved.