The Educational Review, USA

ISSN Print: 2575-7938 Downloads: 238356 Total View: 3346520
Frequency: monthly ISSN Online: 2575-7946 CODEN: TERUBB
Article 10.26855/er.2019.03.001

Spiritual Leadership: Practical Implementation for School Principals in Indonesia*

Indra Dwi Prasetyo

Faculty of Education, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia]

*Corresponding author: Indra Dwi Prasetyo


Published: March 25,2019


This study investigated the impact of Spiritual Leadership(SL) for school principals in Indonesia, both of the positives as well as its drawbacks. Although several researches have scrutinized the use of SL, those studies do not emphasis the relevance of SL in Indonesia, specifically in education context. Therefore, this research attempts to reflect SL implementation in Indonesia which has the ideology of “Belief in Oneness God” as the first principle among other four principle of Pancasila (The Five Principles). Through the exploration of existing empirical studies, this investigation classifies three opportunities of implementing SL, including improving teachers’ performances, enhancing teachers’ commitment and creating inclusive environment. Besides, some challenges that potentially exist is also described. Both side of opportunities and drawbacks can be considered in implementing SL in the future school environments.


Afsar, B., Badir, Y., & Kiani, U. S. (2016). Linking spiritual leadership and employee pro-environmental behavior: The influence of workplace spirituality, intrinsic motivation, and environmental passion. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 45, 79-88. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2015.11.011
Ananta, A., Arifin, E. N., Hasbullah, M. S., Handayani, N. B., & Pramono, A. (2015). Demography of Indonesia's ethnicity: ISEAS - Yusof Ishak Institute.
Arifin, E. N., Ananta, A., Utami, D. R. W. W., Handayani, B. N., & Pramono, A. (2015). Quantifying Indonesia's ethnic diversity. Asian Population Studies, 11(3), 233-256. doi:10.1080/17441730.2015.1090692
Banks, J. A. (2013). The construction and historical development of multicultural education, 1962–2012. Theory Into Practice, 52(sup1), 73-82. doi:10.1080/00405841.2013.795444
Bogler, R., & Nir, A. E. (2014). The contribution of perceived fit between job demands and abilities to teachers’ commitment and job satisfaction. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 43(4), 541-560. doi:10.1177/1741143214535736
Bryman, A. a. (2016). Social research methods (Fifth edition. ed.): New York, NY : Oxford University Press.
Bullough Jr, R. V. (2011). Hope, happiness, teaching, and learning. In New Understandings of Teacher's Work (pp. 15-30): Springer.
Cerit, Y. (2009). The effects of servant leadership behaviours of school principals on teachers’ job satisfaction. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 37(5), 600-623. doi:10.1177/1741143209339650
Chawla, V., & Guda, S. (2010). Individual spirituality at work and its relationship with job satisfaction, propensity to leave and job commitment: An exploratory study among sales professionals. Journal of Human Values, 16(2), 157-167. 
Chegini, M. G., & Nezhad, Z. F. (2012). The effect of spiritual leadership and other elements on employees' empowerment of Iran's bank: Case study of Guilan Province. African Journal of Business Management, 6(28), 8420-8434. doi: 10.5897/ AJBM11.2036
Christopher, P. N., & John, F. M. (1994). Thought self-leadership: Finding spiritual fulfilment in organizational life. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 9(6), 9-16. doi:10.1108/02683949410070151
Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2011). Predicting teacher commitment: The impact of school climate and social–emotional learning. Psychology in the Schools, 48(10), 1034-1048. doi:10.1002/pits.20611
Fairholm, M. R., & Gronau, T. W. (2015). Spiritual leadership in the work of public administrators. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 12(4), 354-373. doi:10.1080/14766086.2015.1060516
Fives, H., & Gill, M. G. (2014). International handbook of research on teachers’ beliefs: Routledge.
Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 693-727. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2003.09.001
Fry, L. W., & Cohen, M. P. (2009). Spiritual Leadership as a Paradigm for Organizational Transformation and Recovery from Extended Work Hours Cultures. Journal of Business Ethics, 84, 265-278. 
Fry, L. W., Matherly, L. L., & Vitucci, S. (2006). Spiritual leadership theory as a source for future theory, research, and recovery from workaholism. Research companion to working time and work addiction, 330. 
Fry, L. W., & Slocum, J. W. (2008). Maximizing the Triple Bottom Line through Spiritual Leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 37(1), 86-96. doi:10.1016/j.orgdyn.2007.11.004
Fry, L. W., Vitucci, S., & Cedillo, M. (2005). Spiritual leadership and army transformation: Theory, measurement, and establishing a baseline. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 835-862. doi: 10.1016/ j.leaqua.2005.07.012
Gay, G. (2002a). Culturally responsive teaching in special education for ethnically diverse students: Setting the stage. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(6), 613-629. doi:10.1080/0951839022000014349
Gay, G. (2002b). Preparing for Culturally Responsive Teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(2), 106-116. doi:10.1177/0022487102053002003
George, G., & Katerina, G. (2017). The role of spiritual leadership in fostering inclusive workplaces. Personnel Review, 46(5), 
908-935. doi:10.1108/PR-11-2015-0286
Grant, D., O'Neil, K., & Stephens, L. (2004). Spirituality in the Workplace: New Empirical Directions in the Study of the Sacred. Sociology of Religion, 65(3), 265-283. doi:10.2307/3712252
Hefner, R. W. (2013). The study of religious in Indonesia The Review of Faith & International Affairs, 11(2), 18-27. doi:10.1080/15570274.2013.808038
Jabbar, A., & Hardaker, G. (2013). The role of culturally responsive teaching for supporting ethnic diversity in British University Business Schools. Teaching in Higher Education, 18(3), 272-284. doi:10.1080/13562517.2012.725221
Johansson, T., & Kroksmark, T. (2004). Teachers' intuition-in-action: How teachers experience action. Reflective Practice, 5(3), 357-381. doi:10.1080/1462394042000270673
Karwowski, M. (2008). Giftedness and Intuition. Gifted and Talented International, 23(1), 115-124. 
Kaya, A. (2015). The relationship between spiritual leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors: A research on school principals' behaviors Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 15(3), 597-606. 
Krishnakumar, S., Houghton, J. D., Neck, C. P., & Ellison, C. N. (2015). The “good” and the “bad” of spiritual leadership. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 12(1), 17-37. doi:10.1080/14766086.2014.886518
Leithwood, K. A., & Montgomery, D. J. (1982). The Role of the Elementary School Principal in Program Improvement. Review of Educational Research, 52(3), 309-339. doi:10.3102/00346543052003309
Marques, J., Dhiman, S., & King, R. (2005). Spirituality in the workplace: Developing an integral model and a comprehensive definition. The Journal of American Academy of Business, 7(1), 81-91. 
McCormick, T. E. (1984). Multiculturalism: Some principles and issues. Theory Into Practice, 23(2), 93-97. doi:10.1080/00405848409543097
Naser, R. A. (2016). Level of Creative Behavior among Teachers of Public Schools within the Green Line from Their Perspective. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(18), 109-119. 
Price, H. E. (2011). Principal–teacher interactions. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(1), 39-85. doi:10.1177/0013161X11417126
Raihani. (2012). Report on multicultural education in pesantren. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 42(4), 585-605. doi:10.1080/03057925.2012.672255
Resnik, D. B. (2017). The Role of Intuition in Risk/Benefit Decision-Making in Human Subjects Research. Accountability in Research, 24(1), 1-29. doi:10.1080/08989621.2016.1198978
Riasudeen, S., & Srinivasan, P. T. (2011). Predictors of Organisational and Job Commitment in Diverse Organisation. Asia Pacific Business Review, 7(3), 188-197. doi:10.1177/097324701100700317
Roberson, Q. M. (2006). Disentangling the Meanings of Diversity and Inclusion in Organizations. Group & Organization Management, 31(2), 212-236. 
Scoffham, S., & Barnes, J. (2011). Happiness Matters: Towards a Pedagogy of Happiness and Well-Being. Curriculum Journal, 22(4), 535-548. 
Su-Chao, C., & Ming-Shing, L. (2007). A study on relationship among leadership, organizational culture, the operation of learning organization and employees' job satisfaction. The Learning Organization, 14(2), 155-185. doi:10.1108/09696470710727014
Trasca, I.-M. (2014). Elements of school organization management. Euromentor Journal, 5(2), 52-63.

How to cite this paper

Spiritual Leadership: Practical Implementation for 
School Principals in Indonesia*

How to cite this paper: Indra Dwi Prasetyo. (2019). Spiritual Leadership: Practical Implementation for School Principals in Indonesia*. The Educational Review, USA,3(3), 28-33.