International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture

ISSN Print: 2578-3467 Downloads: 105235 Total View: 2049537
Frequency: quarterly ISSN Online: 2578-3475 CODEN: IJFSJ3
Email: ijfsa@hillpublisher.com
Article http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2023.03.009

Assessment of Nutrition Intervention Impact on Children in Machakos, Kenya by Deuterium Dilution Isotope Method

John Wakhanu

Chemistry Department, School of Education, The Presbyterian University of East Africa, Kikuyu, Nairobi, Kenya.

*Corresponding author: John Wakhanu

Published: February 28,2023

Abstract

Deuterium Dilution Isotope method (DDIM) was used to assess body composition changes among school-going children in a nutrition intervention with Amaranthus cruentus and Vigna unguiculata, African indigenous leafy vegetables (AILVs), grown in Kangundo and Kilalani primary school gardens in Machakos County, Kenya. It was an experimental cross-over design in two phases, I (13 weeks) and II (12 weeks), with 4 weeks between phases then experimental and control groups for phase II interchanged. In phase I children aged 6-10 years, who met the inclusion criteria, were grouped as experimental (Kangundo, N=66) and control (Kilalani, N=46). The experimental group fed on a recipe of AILVs with an accompaniment of a mixture of maize and beans once a day, 5 days a week per phase while the control group fed only on the accompaniment. A pretested structured questionnaire was administered to parents/caregivers of the children to gather data on demographic and socio-economic characteristics, the methods of preparation and consumption patterns of vegetables, and morbidity patterns to establish the nutritional status of the study children before intervention. Saliva, before and after administration of deuterium oxide, was analyzed at baseline and endline by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess body composition changes and compare with Body Mass Index (BMI) changes. Methods of assessment were validated and a 24 hour dietary recall was used to monitor food intakes away from school. Findings indicated high morbidity and low nutrition status in the study subjects. Poverty and poor consumption of AILVs were reported. As opposed to BMI, DDIM showed a significant improvement in the body composition of experimental groups at endline (p<0.001) during both intervention phases. The higher potential of DDIM over BMI in the assessment of nutrition intervention impact is highlighted in this study.

References

[1] KDHS. (2014). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, Micronutrient survey. National Council for Population and Development, Centre, Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Planning and National Development, Nairobi. Kenya. 

[2] WHO. (2014). Vitamin and mineral nutrition information system, WHO global data base on vitamin deficiency, World Health Organization, Geneva.

[3] Arsenault, J. F., Lo`pez de Romana, D., Penny, M. L., Van Loan, M. D., and Brown, K. H. (2008). Additional zinc delivered in a liquid supplement but not in a fortified porridge, increased fat free mass accrued among young Peruvian children with mild-to-moderate stunting. Journal of Nutrition, 138 (1): 108-14.

[4] Biodiversity International. (2007). Dietary diversity: linking traditional food and plant genetic resources to rural and urban health in sub-Saharan Africa.

[5] Kimiywe, J., Waudo, J., Mbithe, D., and Maundu, P. (2007). Utilization and Medicinal Value of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Urban and Peri-Urban Nairobi. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development, 7 (4), pp.1-15; 27-32.

[6] IAEA. (2010). Introduction to body composition assessment using the deuterium dilution technique with analysis of saliva samples by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. In: Human Health Series. Vol.12. Vienna: International Atomic Energy. 

[7] Wells, J. C. and Fewtrell, M. S. (2006). Measuring body composition. Archives of Disease in Childhood Journal, 91:612-617.

[8] Bowen, L., Taylor, A. E., Sullivan, R., Ebrahim, S., Kinra, S., Krishna, K. V. R., and Kuper, H. (2015). Associations between diet, physical activity and body fat distribution: a cross sectional study in an Indian population. BioMed Central Public Health, 15 (1):281.

[9] Ploeg, G. E., Van, D., Withers, R. T., Laforgia, J., Freedman, D. S., Horlick, M., Berenson, G. S., and Grant, E. (2014). Percent body fat via DEXA: comparison with a four-compartment model Percent body fat via DEXA: comparison with a four-compartment model. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94:499-506. 

[10] Thompson, F. and Subar, A. (2013). Dietary Assessment Methodology. Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease, 5-46.

[11] Ejlerskov, K. T., Jensen, S. M., Christensen, L. B., Ritz, C., Michaelsen, K. F., and Mølgaard, C. (2014). Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA. Scientific Reports, 4:3889.

[12] Hoffman, D. J., Sawaya, A. L., Verreschi, I., Tucker, K. L., and Roberts, S. B. (2000). Why are nutritionally stunted children at increased risk of obesity? Studies of metabolic rate and fat oxidation in shantytown children from Sao Paulo, Brazil. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(3), 702-707.

[13] Javed, A., Jumean, M., Murad, M. H., Okorodudu, D., Kumar, S., Somers, V. K., and Lopez-Jimenez, F. (2015). Diagnostic performance of body mass index to identify obesity as defined by body adiposity in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatric Obesity, 10 (3), 234-244. 

[14] Paula, A., Clemente, G., Danusa, C., Martins, V. J. B., Benedito-silva, A. A., Albuquerque, M. P., and Sawaya, A. L. (2011). Mild stunting is associated with higher body fat: study of a low-income population. Journal of Pediatrics, 87 (2): 138-144.

[15] Silva, D. R. P., Ribeiro, A. S., Pavão, F. H., Ronque, E. R. V., Avelar, A., Silva, A. M., and Cyrino, E. S. (2013). Validity of the methods to assess body fat in children and adolescents using multi-compartment models as the reference method: a systematic review. Revista Da Associação Médica Brasileira, (1992), 59 (5), 475-86.

[16] Ndung’u Zipporah. (2017). “Validation of nutritional status assessment methods using stable isotope dilution technique among primary school children in Nairobi city County, Kenya.” Kenyatta University PhD thesis.

[17] Diouf, A., Adom,T., Aouidet, A., El Hamdouchi, A., Joonas, I. N., Loechl, U. C., Leyna, H. G., Mbithe, D., Moleah, T., Mon-yeki, A., Nashandi, L.H., MA Somda, S., and Reilly, J. J. (2018). Body mass index vs deuterium dilution method for establishing childhood obesity prevalence, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Namibia, Senegal, Tunisia and United Republic of Tanzania, Bulletin World Health Organization, 96 (11): 772-781.

[18] Chege, P. M. (2012). Efficacy of dried amaranth leaves (Amaranthus hybridus) consumption on vitamin A, iron and zinc of children in Kajiado County, Kenya. PhD thesis, Kenyatta University.

[19] Egbi, G., Gbogbo, S., Mensah, G. E., Glover-Amengor, M., and Steiner-Asiedu, M. (2018). Effect of green leafy vegetables powder on anemia and vitamin-A status of Ghanian school children. BioMed Central Nutrition, 4:27.

[20] Winichagoon, P., McKenzie, J. E., Chavasit, V., Pongcharoen, T., Gowachirapant, S., Boonpraderm, A., Manger, M. S., Bailey, K. B., Wasantwisut, E., and Gibson, R. S. (2006). A Multimicronutrient-Fortified Seasoning Powder Enhances the Hemoglobin, Zinc, and Iodine Status of Primary School Children in North East Thailand: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Efficacy. Journal of Nutrition, 136: 1617-1623. 

[21] MacDonald, R. S. (2000). The Role of Zinc in Growth and Cell Proliferation. The Journal of Nutrition, 130 (5): 1500S-1508S.

[22] Zhang, C. (2014). Essential functions of iron-requiring proteins in DNA replication, repair and cell cycle control. Protein and cell, 5 (10), 750-760.

[23] Babette, S., Deborah, A., Kaw, C., Ellen, B. F., Kwaku, O., and Virginia, A. S. (2002). Effect of Zinc supplementation on growth and body composition in children with Sickle Cell disease. The American Journal of Chemical Nutrition, 75:300-307.

[24] Shakur, M. S., Bano, N., Malek, M. A., Kundu, S. K., and Ahmed, A. U. (2009). Effect of Zinc supplementation on appetite, growth and Body composition in children suffering from non-specific ethology of feeding refusal with failure to thrive. The Orion medical Journal, 32 (1): 612-615

[25] Adama, D., Abdou, B., Noel, M., Nicole, I., Papa, S., and Salimota, W. (2016). Daily consumption of ready-to-use peanut-based therapeutic food increased fat free mass improved anaemic status but has no impact on the Zinc status of people living with HIV-AIDS: a randomized controlled trial. BioMed Central Public Health, 16:1.

[26] Marcia, M. G. L., Naira, J. N., Erika, D., de Medeiros, R., Mardone, C. F., de Almeida, M., and Brandao-Neto, J. (2015). Nutritional Assessment methods for Zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-Zinc-deficient children. Food & Nutrition Research, 59:10.3402.

[27] Farhmida, U., Rumawas, J. S., Utomo, B., Patmonodewo, S., and Schultink, W. (2007). Zinc-Iron, but not zinc-alone supple-memtation, increased linear growth of stunted infants with low haemoglobin. Asia Pacific Journal of Nutrition, 16(2): 301-309.

[28] Cochran, W. G. (1963). Sampling Techniques, 2nd Ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

[29] Eurachem guide. (2017). Protocols for determination of limits of detection and limits of quantitation, approved guideline, EP17-A, 24 (34).

[30] Lu Ning-wei, Li Ning, An Qiong, and Dong Yu-ming. (2016). a rapid micellar HPLC method for simultaneous separation of olanzapine and its related compound A in tablets. Journal of Lanzhou University (Medical Sciences), 42(3).

[31] Muhanji, G., Roothaert, R. L., Webo, C., and Mwangi S. (2011). African indigenous vegetable enterprises and market access for small-scale farmers in East Africa. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 9(1): 194-202.

How to cite this paper

Assessment of Nutrition Intervention Impact on Children in Machakos, Kenya by Deuterium Dilution Isotope Method

How to cite this paper:  John Wakhanu. (2023) Assessment of Nutrition Intervention Impact on Children in Machakos, Kenya by Deuterium Dilution Isotope Method. International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture7(1), 56-65.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2023.03.009