Hill Publishing Group | contact@hillpublisher.com

Hill Publishing Group

Location:Home / Journals / The Educational Review, USA /


A Lesson from Indonesia: Implementing 2006 and 2013 English Curriculum

Date: July 6,2018 |Hits: 10768 Download PDF How to cite this paper

Surya Fajar Cahyo Nuraeni

Faculty of Education, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

*Corresponding author: Surya Fajar Cahyo Nuraeni, Master of TESOL (candidate)


It is widely assumed that there should be one curriculum in a country to set the standards guiding the teaching and learning process. In Indonesia, however, there are two national curricula implemented at the same time, namely Curriculum 2006 and Curriculum 2013. Given the lack of studies investigating this issue, this article presents a comparative study of these two curricula focusing on English subject in the senior high school context in Indonesia. It aims at examining the distinction between 2006 English Curriculum and 2013 English Curriculum implemented and their implications for English teaching and learning practice. It is found that these two curricula are distinctive in terms of the development, underlying principles, influential factors, both stated and unstated purposes, pedagogy, and assessment carried out. The discussion concludes with a presentation of the idea of the implementation of CORE pedagogy and authentic assessment to reform the education system as well as to address the most urgent educational issue.


 Ahmad, D. (2014). Understanding the 2013 Curriculum of English Teaching through the Teachers’ and Policymakers’ Perspectives. Interna-tional Journal of Enhanced Research in Educational Development, 2(4), 6-15. Retrieved fromhttp://www.erpublications.com/uploaded_files/download/download_25_07_2014_16_32_27.pdf

Amini,  M.  &  Gonzales,  N.  I.  (2012).  The  Washback  Effect  of  Cloze  and  Multiple  Choice  Tests  on  Vocabulary  Acquisition. Language  inIndia, 12(7), 71-91. Retrieved from http://www.languageinindia.com/july2012/aminibackwashfinal.html

Apple, M. W. (1993). The Politics of Official Knowledge: Does a National Curriculum Make Sense? Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Poli-tics of Education, 14(1), 1-16. doi: 10.1080/0159630930140101

Bascia, N., Carr-Harris, S., Fine-Meyer, R.,  &  Zurzolo, C.  (2014).  Teachers, Curriculum Innovation, and Policy Formation. Curriculum In-quiry, 44(2), 228-248. doi:10.1111/curi.12044

Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (2005). Lessons from around the World: How Policies, Politics and Cultures Constrain and Afford Assessment Prac-tices. The Curriculum Journal,16(2), 249-261. doi: 10.1080/09585170500136218

BNSP. (2006). Panduan Penyusunan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan Jenjang Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah[Guideline on theDevelopment  of  School-based  Curriculum  for  Primary  and  Secondary  Education  Level].  Retrieved  from  http://bsnp-indonesia.org/wp-content/uploads/kompetensi/Panduan_Umum_KTSP.pdf

BNSP.  (2007). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia no. 41/2007 tentang Standar  Proses untuk Satuan PendidikanDasar dan Menengah [Decree of Ministry of National Education of Republic of Indonesia no. 41/2007 on Process Standards for Primary andSecondary Education Level]. Retrieved from http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/ EAP/Teachers/Indonesia/Permen_41_Th-2007.pdf

Brady, L. & Kennedy, K. J. (2014). Curriculum Construction(5th Ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia.

Cohen, D. K. (1990). A Revolution in One Classroom: The Case of Mrs. Oublier. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,12(3),311-329. doi: 10.3102/01623737012003311

Depdiknas.  (2003). Undang-Undang  Republik Indonesia  no.  20/2003 tentang  Sistem  Pendidikan Nasional[Law  no.  20/2003  on  National Education System]. Retrieved from http://peraturan.go.id/uu/nomor-20-tahun-2003.html

Depdiknas. (2005). Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia no. 19/2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan[Government of Republic of Indonesia Regulation no. 19/2005 on National Education Standards]. Retrieved from https://kemenag.go.id/file/dokumen/PP1905.pdf

Depdiknas. (2006a). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia no. 22/2006 tentang Standar Isi untuk Satuan PendidikanDasar dan Menengah [Decree of Ministry of National Education of Republic of Indonesia no. 22/2006 on Content Standards for Primary andSecondary Education Level]. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/19822754/Permendiknas-no-22-tahun-2006-standar-isi

Depdiknas.  (2006b). Peraturan  Menteri  Pendidikan  dan  Kebudayaan  Republik  Indonesia  no.  24/2006  tentang  Pelaksanaan  PeraturanMenteri Pendidikan Nasional no. 22/2006 tentang Standar Isi untuk Satuan Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah dan Peraturan Menteri Pen-didikan Nasional no. 23/2006 tentang Standar Kompetensi Lulusan untuk Satuan Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah [Decree of  Ministry ofNational  Education of Republic of Indonesia no. 22/2006 on Content Standards for Primary and Secondary Education Level  and Decree of Ministry of National Education of Republic of Indonesia no. 23/2006 on Graduate Competency Standards for Primaryand Secondary Educa-tion Level]. Retrieved from http://simpuh.kemenag.go.id/regulasi/permendiknas_24_06.pdf

Depdiknas. (2007). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional no. 20/2007 tentang Standar Penilaian Pendidikan[Decree of Ministry of Na-tional Education no. 20/2007 on Assessment Standards]. Retrieved from http://www.sman4bukittinggi.sch.id/media/pp_dan_permen/Permendiknas20-2007StandarPenilaian.pdf

Diem, C. D.,  Yusfardiyah, Koniaturrohmah, B.,  &  Lismalayani. (2016). Implementation of School-based Curriculum as Perceived by Sec-ondary School Teachers of English. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics,5(2), 167-175. doi: 10.17509/ijal.v5i2.1341

Dowden,  T. (2013).  Understanding the Curriculum.  In P. Hudson (Ed.), Learning to Teach in the Primary School(pp. 37-51). Melbourne, VIC: Cambridge University Press.Eisner, E. W. (2000). Those who Ignore the Past ... : 12 'Easy' Lessons for the Next Millennium. Journal of Curriculum Studies,32(2),343-357. doi: 10.1080/002202700182808

Ekanem, S. A. & Ekefre, E. N. (2014). Philosophical Foundation of Curriculum Development in Nigeria: The Essencist Model. Journal ofEducational and Social Research, 4(3). doi: 10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n3p265

Fajrianti, D., Yufrizal, H., & Supriady, D. (2014). Analyzing Students’Perception on 2013 Curriculum Implementation in English Teaching Learning Process. U-JET,3(7), 1-15. Retrieved from http://jurnal.fkip.unila.ac.id/index.php/123/article/view/6246

Furaidah, Saukah, A., & Widiati, U. (2015). Washback of English National Examination in the Indonesian Context. TEFLIN Journal,26(1), 36-58. doi: 10.15639/teflinjournal.v26i1/36-58

Gobby, B. (2017). What is Curriculum?. In B. Gobby & R. Walker (Eds.), Powers of Curriculum Sociological Perspectives on Education(pp.5-34). Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press.

Habeahan, S. (2017). Penguatan Nilai-Nilai Karakter Pancasila di Sekolah melalui Kurikulum 2013[Strengthening the Values of Pancasilain the Schools Implementing Curriculum 2013]. Retrieved from http://www.netralnews.com/news/opini/read/80767/penguatan.nilai.nilai.karakter.pancasila.di.sekolah.melalui.kurikulum.2013

Haberman,  M.  (1991).  The  Pedagogy  of  Poverty  versus  Good  Teaching. The  Phi  Delta  Kappan,73(1),  290-294.  Retrieved  from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20404620

Hanif, M.  (2014). Tinjauan Filosofis Kurikulum 2013[Analysis of  Educational Philosophies of Curriculum 2013]. Insania,19(1), 87-114. Retrieved from https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/73902-ID-tinjauan-filosofis-kurikulum-2013.pdf

Hapsari, A.  (2013,  August). Making  Sense  the  Character  Building  in  the  Curriculum  Framework:  Conceptualizing  Culture  as  a  Local Wisdom  and  Culture  as the  Product  of Interaction. Paper  presented  at  the  60thTEFLIN  International  Conference:  Achieving  International Standards in Teacher Education, Jakarta Indonesia. Retrieved from http://astri.staff.uii.ac.id/2013/09/10/making-sense-the-character-building-in-the-curriculum-framework-conceptualizing-culture-as-a-local-w isdom-and-culture-as-the-product-of-interaction/

Ilma,  Z.  &  Pratama,  R.  K.  (2015,  March). Transformation in Indonesian  Language  Curriculum:  Pros  and  Cons  between  KTSP  2006  andCurriculum  2013  in Indonesia. Presented  at  International  Conference  on  Trends  in  Economics,  Humanities  and  Management,  Singapore.Retrieved from http://icehm.org/upload/5097ED0315007.pdf

Isa,  Q.  N.  M.  (2016,  October). Pengintegrasian  Nilai Islami  dalam  Pelaksanaan  Simulasi  Pembelajaran  Bahasa Inggris  oleh  MahasiswaMicro  Teaching  Prodi  Pendidikan  Bahasa Inggris  FTK  UIN  Ar-Raniry [Integrating  Islamic  Values  in  the  Teaching  of  English  by  MicroTeaching Participants Majoring  English  Education of  UIN Ar-Raniry]. Paper presented at the 1stAr-Raniry International Conferene on Is-lamic Studies, Banda Aceh Indonesia. Retrieved from http://jurnal.ar-raniry.ac.id/index.php/aricis/article/view/938/745

Kemdikbud. (2013). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia no. 69/2013 tentang Kerangka Dasar dan StrukturKurikulum Sekolah Menengah Atas/Madrasah Aliyah [Decree of the Ministry of Education and Culture of Republic of Indonesia no. 69/2013on    the    Curriculum    Framework    and    Structure    for    Senior    High    Schools].    Retrieved    from    http://biologi.fkip.uns.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/PDK-2013-69-Kerangka-Dasar-Kurikulum-Kompetensi-SMA.pdf

Kemdikbud.  (2014a). Konsep  dan  Implementasi  Kurikulum  2013[Concept  and  Implementation  of  Curriculum  2013].  Retrieved  from https://kemdikbud.go.id/kemdikbud/dokumen/Paparan/Paparan%20Wamendik.pdf

Kemdikbud.  (2014b). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan  dan  Kebudayaan  Republik  Indonesia  no.  159/2014  tentang  Evaluasi  Kurikulum[Decree  of  the  Ministry  of  Education  and  Culture  of  Republic  of  Indonesia  no.  159/2014  on  the  Curriculum  Evaluation].  Retrieved  from http://simpuh.kemenag.go.id/regulasi/permendikbud_159_14.pdf

Kemdikbud. (2014c). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia no. 160/2014 tentang Pemberlakuan Kurikulum2006 dan Kurikulum 2013 [Decreeof Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia no. 160/2014 on the Implementation ofCurriculum 2006 and Curriculum 2013]. Retrieved from http://dikdas.kemdikbud.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Permendikbud-No-160-Tahun-2014.pdf

Kemdikbud. (2014d). Surat Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia no. 179342/MPK/KR/2014 tentang Pelak-sanaan Kurikulum 2013 [Decree of Ministry of  Education and Culture of Republic of Indonesia no. 179342/MPK/KR/2014 on the Imple-mentation of Curriculum 2013]. Retrieved from http://pemerintah.net/surat-penghentian-kurikulum-2013

Kemdikbud. (2016a). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia no. 22/2016 tentang Standar Proses PendidikanDasar dan Menengah [Decree of Ministry of Education and Culture of Republik of Indonesia no. 22/2016 on Process Standards for Primaryand Secondary Education Level]. Retrieved from http://bsnp-indonesia.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/Permendikbud_Tahun2016_Nomor022_Lampiran.pdf

Kemdikbud. (2016b). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia no. 23/2016 tentang Standar Penilaian Pendidi-kan [Decree  of  the  Ministry  of  Education  and  Culture  of  Republic  of  Indonesia  no.  23/2016  on  Assessment  Standards].  Retrieved  fromhttp://bsnp-indonesia.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/Permendikbud_Tahun2016_Nomor023.pdf

Kentli,  F.  D.  (2009).  Comparison  of  Hidden  CurriculumTheories. European  Journal  of  Educational  Studies,1(2),  83-88.  Retrieved  from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7b6d/7275c2c3f5f176ee42d8e661ebdb4683e959.pdf

Kim, S. (2012). Options in a Multiple-Choice English Test: Quality over Quantity. Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics,12(1), 19-39. doi: 10.15738/kjell.12.1.201203.19

Lie, A. (2007). Education Policy and EFL Curriculum in Indonesia: Between the Commitment to Competence and the Quest for Higher Test. TEFLIN Journal, 18(1), 1-14. Retrieved from http://teflin.org/journal/index.php/journal/article/viewFile/48/53

Mahfuddin, H. A. (2013). Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA)[School-Based Curriculum for Sen-ior  High  School]. Allemania,  2(2),  152-158.  Retrieved  from  https://www.academia.edu/3405910/KURIKULUM_TINGKAT_SATUAN_ PENDIDIKAN_KTSP_SEKOLAH_MENENGAH_ATAS_SMA_

Marsh, C. J., Clarke, M., & Pittaway, S. (2014). Marsh's Becoming a Teacher(6th Ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia.

Mattarima,  K.  & Hamdan, A. R. (2011).  The  Teaching Constraints of English as a  Foreign Language  in  Indonesia:  The Context of School Based Curriculum. Sosiohumanika,4(2), 287-300. Retrieved from ejournal.unp.ac.id/index.php/elt/article/download/4593/3633Mc

Connell, K. D. & Doolittle, P. E. (2011). Classroom-Level Assessment: Aligning Pedagogical Practices to Enhance Student Learning . In C. Secolsky & D. B. Denison (Eds.), Handbook on Measurement, Assessment, and Evaluation in Higher Education(pp. 15-30). New York, NY: Routledge.

Mubarak, Z. (2017). Mental “Ganti Menteri Ganti Kebijakan” di Negeri Kita[Notion of “A Reform Carriedout by the New Minister” in our Country]. Retrieved https://www.kompasiana.com/zakimu79/mental-ganti-menteri-ganti-kebijakan-di-negeri-kita_594326d591fdfd9f 54919572

Muth’im, A. (2014). Understanding and Responding to the Change of Curriculum in the Context of Indonesian Education. American Journalof Educational Research, 2(11), 1094-1099. doi: 10.12691/education-2-11-15

Nur, M. R. & Madkur, A. (2014). Teachers’ Voices on the 2013 Curriculum for English Instructional Activities. IJEE,1(2), 119-133. Re-trieved from http://journal.uinjkt.ac.id/index.php/ijee/article/view/1340

Ornstein,  A.  C.  (1990).  Philosophy  as  a  Basis  for  Curriculum  Decisions. The  High  School  Journal,74(2),  102-109.  Retrieved  from https://www.jstor.org/stable/40364829?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Prastiwi, Y. (2013). Transmitting Local Cultural Knowledge through English as Foreign Language (EFL) Learning as a Means of Fostering “Unity in Diversity”. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies,2(3). doi: 10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n3p507

Pratt, D. (1994). Curriculum Planning: A Handbook for Professionals. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourh Brace College Publishers.

Putra, K. A. (2014). The Implication of Curriculum Renewal on ELT in Indonesia. PAROLE: Journal of Linguistics and Education,4(1), 63-75. Retrieved from http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/parole/article/view/6315

Putri, A. (2016). Teachers’ Perceptions toward  the  Implementation  of  School-Based  Curriculum  (SBC)  in  Indonesia. Rangsit  Journal  ofEducational Studies, 3(1), 41-47. doi: 10.14456/rjes.2016.3

Resh, N. & Benavot, A. (2009). Educational Governance, School Autonomy, and Curriculum Implementation: Diversity and Uniformity inKnowledge Offerings to Israeli Pupils. Journal of Curriculum Studies,41(1), 67-92. doi: 10.1080/00220270802446826

Sujana, I. M., Nuryanti, T., & Narasintawati, L. S. (2010). Landasan Filosofi dan Teoritis Standar Isi Bahasa Inggris dalam KTSP dan Tan-tangan  Kurikulum  LPTK  Bahasa  Inggris [Educational  Theories  and  Philosophies  on  Content  Standard  of  School-based  Curriculum  andChallenges Faced by English Department in University level]. Jurnal Linguistik, Sastra, dan Budaya (Lisdaya),6(1), 1-15. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315643093_I_M_LANDASAN_FILOSOFI_DAN_TEORITIS_STANDAR_ISI_BAHASA_ INGGRIS_DALAM_KTSP_DAN_TANTANGAN_KURIKULUM_LPTK_BAHASA_INGGRIS

Sukyadi,  D.  &  Mardiani,  R.  (2011).  The  Washback  Effect  of  the  English  National  Examination  (ENE)  on English Teachers’ Classroom Teaching and Students’ Learning. K@ta,13(1), 96-111. doi: 10.9744/kata.13.1.96-111

Tartila, Yasin, A., Rozimela, Y. (2013). The Implementation of Genre Based Approach in English Teaching at Islamic Senior High SchoolModel (MAN Model) Jambi. Journal English Language Teaching,1(3), 36-49. Retrieved from ejour-nal.unp.ac.id/index.php/elt/article/download/4593/3633

Tedesco, J. C., Opertti, R., & Amadio, M. (2014). The Curriculum Debate: Why It Is Important Today. Prospects: Quarterly Review ofComparative Education, 44(4), 527-546. doi: 10.1007/s11125-014-9326-x

Wilson,     L.     O.     (n.d.). Types     of     Curriculum:     Definitions    of     the     Different     Types     of     Curriculum.     Retrieved     from http://thesecondprinciple.com/instructional-design/types-of-curriculum/

Zyngier, D. (2008). (Re)conceptualising Student Engagement: Doing Education Not Doing Time. Teaching and Teacher Education: An In-ternational Journal of Research and Studies, 24(7), 1765-1776. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2007.09.004

How to cite this paper

A Lesson from Indonesia: Implementing 2006 and 2013 English Curriculum

How to cite this paper: Nuraeni, S. F. C. (2018). A Lesson from Indonesia: Imple-menting 2006 and 2013 English Curriculum. The Educational Review, USA, 2(7), 386-396.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/er.2018.07.003

Free HPG Newsletters

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from Hill Publishing Group.

Contact us

Hill Publishing Group

8825 53rd Ave

Elmhurst, NY 11373, USA

E-mail: contact@hillpublisher.com

Copyright © 2019 Hill Publishing Group Inc. All Rights Reserved.