International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture

ISSN Print: 2578-3467 Downloads: 105215 Total View: 2049273
Frequency: quarterly ISSN Online: 2578-3475 CODEN: IJFSJ3

Household Coping Strategies and the Extent of Vulnerability to Food Insecurity: Lessons from Yam Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Ayoola Ibukun Ogunyemi1, Adewale Isaac Olutumise2,*, Ademola Adegoroye3

1Provost Office, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. 

2Department of Agricultural Economics, Adekunle Ajasin University, P.M. B 001, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. 

3Department of Environmental Resource Management, Brandenburg Technical University, Cottbus-Senftenberg, Germany.

*Corresponding author: Adewale Isaac Olutumise

Published: December 1,2022


The study analysed the extent of vulnerability to food insecurity and household coping mechanisms among yam farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Cross-sectional data were used with a 360-sample size. Multinomial logit model (MNL) and Feasible Generalized Least Square method (FGLS) were employed for the data analysis. The results of the FGLS model showed that 49.3% of the households in the study area enjoyed a stable level of food security, being food secure and low vulnerability to food insecurity. However, 30.23% of the population were undernourished and highly vulnerable; they are considered chronically food-insecure households. However, the study revealed that 11.01% of the food secure households may be food insecure in the future, if necessary, attention and intervention are not given by both households and the government. Again, 9.4% of the households that are currently experiencing food shortages may bounce back in the future. The findings of MNL revealed that the age of the household head, main occupation, household size, land size, net household income, and membership in a cooperative society was the main significant factors in yam farming households' decision to use coping strategies. As a result, it is recommended that leveraging the potential role of coping mechanisms already used by households during food shortages to reduce food insecurity should be considered and implemented as policy options.


[1] Ajayi, C.O. and Olutumise, A.I. (2017). Determinants of food security and technical efficiency of cassava farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 21(7): 915-928.

[2] Omotesho, O.A. and Muhammad-Lawal, A. (2010). Optimal food plan for rural households’ food security in Kwara State, Nigeria: The goal programming approach. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development, 2(1): 007-014. Available online

[3] Stellah, M., Johanna, J., Chinwe, I.S., Stephan, R. and Boniface, K. (2020). Learning and Adaptation in Food Systems: Insights from Four Case Studies in the Global South. International Journal on Food System Dynamics, 11(4): 312-328. DOI: 

[4] Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). (2009). The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Vialedelle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy. 

[5] Amaza, P. (2018). Impact on household food security of promoting sustainable agriculture among farming households in Borno State, Nigeria. 10th International Conference of Agricultural Economist, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver.

[6] Ogunniyi, A.I., Omotoso, S.O., Salman, K.K., Omotayo, A.O., Olagunju, K.O. and Aremu, A.O. (2021). Socio‑economic Drivers of Food Security among Rural Households in Nigeria: Evidence from Smallholder Maize Farmers. Social Indicators Research, 155:583-599.

[7] Zeller M. (2012). Review of Poverty Assessment Tools Research Report. International Food Policy Research Institute, 2(3), 48-76.

[8] Babatunde, R.O., Omotesho, O.A., Olorunsanya, E.O. and Owotoki, G.M. (2008). Determinants of vulnerability to food insecurity: A gender-based analysis of farming households in Nigeria. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 63(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.204567.

[9] Ninno, D.C., Dorosh, A.P. and Smith, C.L. (2003). Floods, food security and coping strategies: Evidence from Afghanistan. Journal of International Association of Agricultural Economics, 52(1): 1-171.

[10] Jinhong, W., Ruoxi, L., Wenxin, W., Zhongmei, L., and Bizhen, C. (2016). Income Diversification: A Strategy for Rural Region Risk Management. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1064; doi: 10.3390/su8101064. Retrieved from:

[11] Van der Veen, A., and Tagel, G. (2011). Effect of policy interventions on food security in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Ecology and Society 16(1): 18. [online] URL:

[12] Myslym, O., Remzi, K., Arben, K. and Ilir, T. (2020). Factors Influencing Consumers’ Perceptions of Safety Risk of Fresh Domestic Tomato in Albania – a Multinomial Econometric Approach. International Journal on Food System Dynamics, 11(4): 387-401. DOI:

[13] FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO. (2021). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021. Transforming food systems for food security, improved nutrition and affordable healthy diets for all. Rome, FAO.

[14] Food and Agriculture Organisation. (FAO). (2015). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015. Rome.

[15] FAO, IFAD and WFP. (2013). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013. “The multiple dimensions of food security; Rome, FAO. 

[16] Babatunde, R.O., and Qaim, M. (2010). Impact of Off-Farm Income on Food Security and Nutrition in Nigeria. Food Policy, 35: 303-311.

[17] Devereux, S. and Maxwell, S. (2011). Food Security in sub-Saharah Africa. Economics Letters, 12(6): 12-37.

[18] Asogwu, B.C., and Umeh, J. C. (2012). Food insecurity determinants among rural farming households in Nigeria. International conference on Ecology, Agriculture and Chemical Engineering (ICEACS’ 2012), December 18-19, Phuket Thailand.

[19] Egwuda, D. (2014). Food Security and Productivity of Urban Food Crop Farming Households in Southern Nigeria. Agricultural Science, 2(3): 01-12. 

[20] Osabohien, R., Osabuohien, E. and Urhie, E. (2018). Food Security, Institutional Framework and Technology: Examining the Nexus in Nigeria Using ARDL Approach. Current Nutrition & Food Science, 14: 154-163. DOI:10.2174/1573401313666170525133853.

[21] Omotayo, A.O., Ogunniyi, A.I., Tchereni, B.H.M. and Nkonki-Mandleni, B. (2018). Understanding the link between House-holds’ poverty and food Security in Southwest Nigeria. The Journal of Developing Areas, 52(3): 26-37.

[22] Fanny, W., Jos, B. and Jacques, T. (2021). Value Chain Upgrading through Producer Organisations: Linking Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with Modern Retail Markets in Indonesia. International Journal on Food System Dynamics, 12(1): 68-82. DOI:

[23] Betts, R et al. (2018). Changes in climate extremes, fresh water availability and vulnerability to food insecurity projected at 1.5°C and 2°C global warming with a higher-resolution global climate model. Phil Trans Roy Soc A.

[24] Yoade, A.O., Olatunji, S.A. and Adeyemi, O.O. (2018). Vulnerability to Food Insecurity Among Rural Households in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Scientific E-Journal, 4(4):72-84. Available at

[25] Sileshi, M., Kadigi, R., Mutabazi, K. and Sieber, S. (2019). Analysis of households’ vulnerability to food insecurity and its influencing factors in East Hararghe, Ethiopia. Journal of Economic Structure, 8:41. 

[26] Braun, Y.A. (2020). Environmental change, risk and vulnerability: poverty, food insecurity and HIV/AIDS amid infrastructural development and climate change in Southern Africa. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 13(2): 267-291.

[27] Pakravan-Charvadeh, M., Savari, M., Khan, H., Gholamrezai, S. and Flora, C. (2021). Determinants of household vulnerability to food insecurity during COVID-19 lockdown in a mid-term period in Iran. Public Health Nutrition, 24(7): 1619-1628. doi:10.1017/S1368980021000318.

[28] Capaldo, J., Karfakis, P., Knowles, M. and Smulder, M. (2010). A Model of Vulnerability to Food Insecurity. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation. ESA Working Paper No. 06-12. Available at [ac-cessed May 13 2020].

[29] Olutumise, A.I., Ajibefun, I.A., Omonijo, A.G. (2021). Effect of Climate Variability on Healthcare Expenditure of Food Crop Farmers in Southwest, Nigeria. International Journal of Biometeorology, doi: 10.1007/s00484-021-02079-z. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33474613.

[30] Green, W.H. (2000). Econometric Analysis, 4th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

[31] Agboola, P. O., Ikpi, A. E., and Kormawa, P. M. (2004). Factors influencing food insecurity among rural farming households in Africa: Results of analysis from Nigeria. Internet Discussion Paper, November, 2004; available at [accessed May 13 2020].

[32] UNICEF. (2009). State of the World’s Children, Maternal and Newborn Health. UNICEF, New York.

[33] Chaudhuri, S. (2003). Accessing Vulnerability to Poverty. Concepts, empirical methods and illustrative examples, Mimeo, Columbia University. Internet Discussion Paper, November, 2003; Available at [ac-cessed May 13 2020].

How to cite this paper

Household Coping Strategies and the Extent of Vulnerability to Food Insecurity: Lessons from Yam Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

How to cite this paper:  Ayoola Ibukun Ogunyemi, Adewale Isaac Olutumise, Ademola Adegoroye. (2022) Household Coping Strategies and the Extent of Vulnerability to Food Insecurity: Lessons from Yam Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture6(4), 379-388.